What is Database? Definition, Types, components of Database

Before we learn about databases, we need to understand some of the basics. Let’s start:

What is Data?

Data is a collection of facts such as letters, words, numbers, observations, measurements, or detail of anything.

What is Database?

A database is a structured collection of data or information, usually stored electronically in a computer system. Databases make data management much easier. Databases are usually controlled by the Database Management System (DBMS). Most databases use structured query language (SQL) to read and write data from the database.

Let’s look at some real life examples to understand the database.

Your electricity service providers use databases to store client information, manage bills, and solve client issues.

An online telephone directory used databases to store data of peoples contact numbers, personal information and other contact details.

Let’s take a look at Facebook. It requires storing, manipulating, and presenting data about members, their friends, messages, ads, and more. We can provide countless examples of database usage.

Types of Databases:

Here are some of the popular types of databases are:

1) Distributed Databases:

Distributed databases are a type of database that collaborates with general databases and information obtained through local computers. In such a database system, the data is not stored in one place and is distributed among different organizations.

2) Relational Databases:

A relational database is a type of database that stores data in a structured form using tables (rows and columns). This is “relational” because the data inside each of the tables are related to each other or the tables can also be related to other tables. This is the most popular type of DBMS on the market.

Examples of RDBMS databases include Oracle, Microsoft, MySQL, and MySQL Server databases.

3) Cloud Databases:

Cloud Database is a database service accessed and built through the Cloud Platform. Users install the software in the cloud infrastructure to host and implement the database.

Key Features:

The database can be accessed and built anywhere and anytime remotely.

It allows individual users as well as large organizations to implement databases without having to purchase server machines or other required hardware.

It also offers high availability as well as on-demand scalability.

4) Object-Oriented Databases:

An object-oriented database is a type of database in which data is stored and represented like an object used in object-oriented programming.

Object-oriented databases are different from relational databases based on tables.

Mongo DB is an example of an object-oriented database.

5) Data Warehouses:

NoSQL, meaning “not just SQL,” is a database design approach that provides a flexible schema for storing and retrieving data outside of traditional table structures found in relational databases.

NoSQL databases are effective for large data performance issues that are unable to solve relational databases.

It is most effective when an organization has to analyze large amounts of unstructured data or data that is stored on multiple virtual servers in the cloud.

6) Graph Databases:

The graph-based database uses graph theory to map, store, and make query relationships.

Databases of this type of computer are mostly used for interconnection analysis. For example, an organization may use a graph database to mine data about social media users.

7) OLTP Databases:

OLTP is another database type capable of performing rapid query processing and maintaining data integrity in a multi-access environment.

8) Personal Databases:

A personal database is used to store data stored on personal computers that are small and easily accessible and manageable.

The type of data mostly used by a small group of people and is accessed by the same department of the company.

9) JSON/Document Databases:

In a document-based database, data is stored in document sets or collections, typically using XML, BSON, and JSON formats.

A collection can store as much data as you want in any data type you want.

10) Hierarchical Databases:

Such DBMS employs “parent-child” relationships to store data. Its structure is like a tree in which the nodes are represented the record and branches represents the fields.

The Windows Registry used in Windows XP is an example of a hierarchical database.

11) Network DBMS:

Network DBMS supports many-to-many relationships. This usually results in a complex database structure.

RDM Server is an example of a Network DBMS that implements a network model.

Database Components:

Components of database

There are 5 primary components of database are:


Hardware includes electronic, physical devices such as storage devices, I / O devices, computers, etc. It provides an interface between the real world systems and computers.

2. Software:

It is a set of programs used to control and manage the database.

These include the operating system, database software itself, the network software used to share data between application program and users for accessing data in the database.


Data is a collection of raw and unorganized facts and figures that is required to be processed to make it meaningful.

Generally, data comprises facts, letters, observations, words, numbers, images, measurements, symbols, etc.

4. Procedure:

The procedure is a set of rules and instructions that will help you use DBMS. It is designing and running the database using documented methods that allow you to guide the user who runs and manages it.

5.Database Access Languages:

Database Access Language is used to retrieve and access the data from a database, update existing data, enter new data, or retrieve the data from databases.


A database is an organized repository of data. The database can store data about products, individuals, or anything else.

Some of the most popular database application software include server solutions such as Microsoft MySQL Server, MySQL, Oracle and desktop solutions such as File Maker Pro and Microsoft Access. The database can effectively store a large number of records.